Wednesday, August 29, 2018

Breadboard Experiene

  • Continuity meter: meter that checks that circuit runs between two points
  • Voltaic stack of metal for batteries
  • Fritzing app
  • Rails= the power and ground strip
    • The power area may not be connected all the way through so that different power sources can be wired
  • LED comes in t-package
  • Red, yellow, green, 2prong are usually about 3 v and operate on 20 mA.
    • Almost always need resistor
  • Tactical Media- thinking about how to deploy an idea to get the best effect (throwies)
Experience Documentation
  • 1st test:
    • Hooked black battery part to rails without battery attached.
    • Added red connection
    • Input resistor
    • Input LED
    • Connected Ground
    • Plugged in battery

  • 2nd test:
    • Added another LED to row (do not have image, it was partners test)
  • 3rd test:
    • Attempted running power and lights from one side of bread board to other
    • Changed resistor position
    • Added LED
    • Added ground

  • 4th test:
    • Added another LED anode to cathode end of one LED
  • 5th test:
    • Lined a bunch of LED's up and connected to ground to see if the LEDs dimmed

  • 6th test:
    • Diagonally lined LED's up anode to cathode

Week 4 Symbol Reference Link

Link to website: Symbols

What is Physicomp?

          Physicomp, short for physical computing, refers to the ability to create designs digitally, through software and programming, that are applicable to the physical world. By utilizing technology, programs that monitor events or stimuli in the physical world can be documented and monitored. When pushed further, certain events can be prompted to activate as a result of the events or stimuli being monitored. Four examples of the relationship between the digital and physical worlds are introduced in the AntiRape Lingerie, The Eyewriter, Beatriz da Costa's Pigeon Blog, and the Mic Jammer projects.
          The AntiRape Lingerie, known to the creators as Society Harnessing Equipment (SHE), is a normal white bra that can be triggered to monitor aggressive touch by turning the equipment on. If an aggressor's touch is felt, 82 shocks will be delivered, and if the device was programmed with the victim's family information, will send a notice to both the family and nearest police station. This feat of reportage is possible through the use of a GPS device implemented.
          The Eyewriter tracks eye movement, and allows those with paralysis to continue doing work. In the product's example case, a graffiti artist that is unable to move is able to create graffiti on a computer screen by utilizing his eye movements, and this design can then be projected onto buildings, whether the buildings are close or not.
          The Pigeon Blog is a collaboration that allows air pollution levels to be documented and mapped through pigeon flight to Google's mapping environment. Pigeon Blog attempts to create a bridge between scientists and activists that aspires to inspire change through the idea that animals can positively be used to further investigations about the world that cannot be reached through human means.
          Mic Jammer is a project concerned with designing a device that cancels unwanted recording devices from recording sound by creating a sound inaudible to humans that cancels device recording abilities, although the project is still working on being properly implemented.
          Overall, physical computing refers to the ability to utilize technology to translate physical information to the digital world, create a program or invention that computes the data received, and then react or change the physical world by translating the digital to the physical.

Notes for Monday Readings

Electricity Fundamentals

  • Electricity refers o the flow of electrons
    • Alternating Current (AC) vs Direct Current (DC)
  • Valence electrons interact between atoms
    • Energy levels in atoms create energy/friction when electrons change levels
  • Conductors have less electronegativity and lose electrons easier
  • Insulators have higher electronegativity and do no lose electrons easily
    • Conductors:
      • Silver
      • Copper
      • Gold
      • Aluminum
      • Iron
      • Steel
      • Brass
      • Bronze
      • Mercury
      • Graphite
      • Dirty Water
      • Concrete
    • Insulators:
      • Glass
      • Rubber
      • Oil
      • Asphalt
      • Fiberglass
      • Porcelain
      • Ceramic
      • Quartz
      • (Dry) Cotton, Paper, Wood
      • Plastic
      • Air
      • Diamond
      • Pure Water
  • High enough electrical current can negate insulator properties
  • Current wants to flow from positive to negative (Power to Ground)
    • When connected in a circuit, current flows when voltage utilizes the potential energy in a system to create pressure. 
  • Conventional current flow (actual current) is power to ground while Electron current flow (electron current) is ground to power
What is a Circuit
  • Circuits are useful because they allow objects to be activated, such as with lights, noise, and programs
    • These objects are "loads", or objects that "load down" the power supply
  • A short circuit occurs when there are no loads
    • Light bulbs are a short circuit, but no burning occurs because there is no air inside
  • 1 amp = 6.25 x 1018 / sec
  • Ohm's Law is I = V / R 
    • I (current in amps)
    • V (voltage in volts)
    • R (resistance in ohms)
  • Batteries hold 2 to 3 amps
  • An open circuit has a break in the circuit, and therefore will not work
Components Part One
  • Components "constructively push electricity to do work"
  • Two types of components: through hole and surface mount technology
    • Both are soldered to circuit
    • THT (through hole tech) is older and consists of legs passing through board
    • SMT (surface mount tech) is newer and sits on board
      • SMT's are continuously getting smaller
      • SMD (surface mount device)
  • Datasheets are available for components
    • Illustrate interior schematics
    • List limits and characteristics
    • 555 is most common
  • Batteries supply DC
    • Capacities such as Ampere-Hours (Ah) and milliAmp-Hours (mAh)
  • Power symbols are upward arrows or circles
  • Ground symbols are downward arrows are lines
  • Switches create a toggle area that opens and closes circuits
    • Normally open (NO) vs Normally Close (NC)
    • Pole- number of switch contact sets (how many switches are utilized)
    • Throw- number of conducting positions, single, double, etc. (how many options can be switched by pole)
    • Momentary- switch returns to its normal position when released
    • Latching- stays at last state until triggered again

  • Bands on resistors illustrate amount of resistance
    • Can come in banks
    • Can come in high wattage types that look like ceramic blocks
    • Last band is tolerance, 2nd to last is multiplier, 1st to 3rd to last bands illustrate number
  • Capacitors are measured in Farads and come in multiple forms and materials
    • Store electrical potential that is used to boost a current
    • Can be discharged with an insulated handle (screwdriver) by laying the conductive section across two poles without making contact with flesh
  • Capacitors can be polarized or non-polar
    • Must be correctly aligned in circuit
    • Polar positive leg is longer than negative leg, Non-polar legs are equal (consult data sheets)
  • Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are used to test circuits
    • Contain anode (+) and cathode (-) legs
    • Are encased in an epoxy lens
    • Usually require resistor because they are low current
  • All diodes are polar
    • Reversing direction kills current in circuit
    • Parts inside cathode are larger
    • Flat side is cathode
    • Cathodes are shorter than anodes
    • Anode symbol is arrow pointing towards cathode with line inbetween
  • Integrated Circuits first appeared in 1950s and allow well known circuits to be built into very small modular designs
    • amplifiers
    • Divot on chip indicates top
    • Top left is ground, top right is power
Physical Computing (Physicomp)- computing things for the actual world
  • Anti-Rape Lingerie (Society Harnessing Equipment/SHE)
    • Delivers 82 shocks to agressor
    • Contacts police station and family; had a GPS device that can be programmed
    • Wearer's skin side is insulated
    • Can be turned on or off
    • Trying to figure out how material can be washed
  • The Eyewriter
    • Tim cannot move, but was a good graffiti artist
    • Allows artists to draw with only their eyes
    • "Free and open source software for commercially available eye tracking devices"
    • Only $50
    • Drawing on computer being projected onto a building far away
  • Beatriz da Costa-Pigeon Blog
    • "Collaborative between homing pigeons, artists, engineers, and pigeon fanciers" that collected and distributed knowledge about air quality to general public
    • Pigeons had air pollution devices that sent the information to be mapped on Google's mapping environment
    • Aim 1: to "re-invoke urgency" about pollution and attempt change
    • Aim 2: to "broaden notion of citizen science" and link scientists and activists
    • Aim 3: to create positively friendly work between humans and animals
    • Inspiration from German engineer Julius Neubronner
      • Pigeon carried camera for military images
  • Mic Jammer
    • Creates a sound inaudible to humans but blocks noises from reaching the phone's microphone
    • Still in development; it is still too large, and needs to cover all mics while cradling phone

Tuesday, August 28, 2018

Hello World

     This is my "hello world" blog post, and my first post for this class. I find it interesting how the first lesson when dealing with programming is displaying this statement.